The AMCC was established by the Alabama legislature during the 2021 legislative session and signed into law by Alabama Governor Kay Ivey. The AMCC consists of fourteen board members appointed by the Governor, Lt. Governor, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Senate Pro Tem., Agriculture and Industries Commissioner, State Health Officer, Attorney General, and Alabama Law Enforcement Agency. Board members must have expertise in a range of fields, including medicine, pharmacy, agricultural lending and practices, law enforcement, legal compliance, and mental health.

The AMCC will work to implement and administer the laws by making medical cannabis derived from cannabis grown in Alabama available to registered qualified patients and by licensing facilities that process, transport, test or dispense medical cannabis. AMCC is authorized to both administer and enforce the laws and rules relating to medical cannabis.